TTHealthWatch is a weekly podcast from Texas Tech. In it, Elizabeth Tracey, director of digital media for Johns Hopkins Remedy in Baltimore, and Rick Lange, MD, president of the Texas Tech University Nicely being Sciences Center in El Paso, look on the pinnacle clinical reports of the week.
This week’s issues comprise aspirin and left ventricular support devices, semaglutide and cardiovascular events in participants with out diabetes, sodium and blood stress, and live shingles vaccine and waning immunity.
1:42 Once weekly subcutaneous semaglutide or placebo
2:42 Does lower cardiovascular events
3:42 Unwanted side effects at initiation and escalation
5:16 About 8 mm Hg systolic
6:16 All groups ended with a income
7:17 You can also read on the trace
7:32 Are residing herpes zoster vaccine
8:32 34% vaccinated
9:32 Vaccinated earlier than 2017
11:05 Threat of bleeding or clotting
Elizabeth: Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in obesity in participants that have no longer bear diabetes.
Rick: The terminate of salt on blood stress.
Elizabeth: The live herpes zoster vaccine and 10 years of apply-up.
Rick: And making mechanical cardiac toughen safer.
Elizabeth: That’s what we’re talking about this week on TTHealthWatch, your weekly look on the clinical headlines from Texas Tech University Nicely being Sciences Center in El Paso. I’m Elizabeth Tracey, a Baltimore-based mostly totally clinical journalist.
Rick: I’m Rick Lange, president of Texas Tech University Nicely being Sciences Center in El Paso, the set I’m furthermore dean of the Paul L. Foster College of Remedy.
Elizabeth: Let’s remind all people, Rick, that this week the American Coronary heart Affiliation assembly has been offering us with an mammoth quantity of files and so I’d favor to flip first to the Novel England Journal of Remedy. This is the study semaglutide, which is a diabetes drug, cardiovascular outcomes in participants with obesity who carry out no longer bear diabetes.
Outdated study has already established that in the event you carry out bear diabetes, this semaglutide, which is a glucagon-admire peptide-1 receptor agonist or GLP-1 receptor agonist, has been shown to lower opposed cardiovascular events. On this case, what they did is that they looked at participants that did no longer bear diabetes but who did bear obesity — is that this going to support as some distance as cardiovascular outcomes are concerned?
It be a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, match-pushed, superiority trial. They’ve patients forty five years or older who had preexisting cardiovascular illness and a BMI [body mass index] of 27 or bigger, but no historical past of diabetes. These participants had been randomly assigned 1:1 to both receive as soon as-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide or placebo.
The predominant cardiovascular endpoint used to be composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, non-lethal MIs [myocardial infarctions], non-lethal stroke in a time-to-first-match prognosis. They furthermore looked, pointless to claim, at security.
That they had 17,000+ patients enrolled, 8,800 of whom had been assigned to the semaglutide arm. The imply duration of publicity used to be 34 months and they followed them for 39.8±9.4 months. What they stumbled on used to be that this predominant occurred in 6.5% of the semaglutide community and in 8% in the placebo community.
Rick: I are making an strive to focus on again the patient inhabitants we’re talking about. You talked about the truth they have no longer bear diabetes but they did bear obesity, and more importantly they all had established cardiovascular illness. That they had a old heart attack or a old stroke, or they had symptomatic peripheral arterial illness.
I feel the scrutinize is terribly convincing that on this community of participants that it does lower cardiovascular events. We have no longer but know whether in the absence of established cardiovascular illness whether GLP-1 agonists could presumably well be vital or no longer.
The a form of caveat about that is that nearly all efficient a pair of fourth of the participants had been ladies and intensely few African American citizens — 4% of the patient inhabitants. I feel we wanted extra files earlier than we’re giving this to all people.
Now, the closing ingredient I had talked about is the life like weight prick price used to be about 10%. Alternatively, the cardiac advantages had been established long earlier than the total weight used to be misplaced. It lowered C-reactive protein, it lowered irritation, it lowered blood stress, so there also can very properly be some a form of effects for the GLP-1 agonist moreover apt weight prick price which could presumably well be priceless in lowering cardiovascular illness.
Elizabeth: One in every of the issues I thought used to be attention-grabbing that they speculate on is that this gastrointestinal aspect effects. They focus on that nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea had been no longer odd all the map in which by map of medication with these particular receptor agonists, in particular as soon as they initiated medication and as they escalated the dose. The query is whether or no longer that’s going to terminate up being tolerable over the long haul for participants.
Rick: Yeah. Elizabeth, particularly, as you talked about, about one out of six participants that had been started on this had been unable to tolerate it. By the map in which, they didn’t delivery on the very best dose. They started at a low dose and tried to titrate participants up. Even with, one out of six had been unable to tolerate it.
Elizabeth: Yeah. I feel, pointless to claim, we are going to seek for a great deal of more of a majority of these agents which could presumably well be going to be accessible — no query some which could presumably well be going to rob a study to conquer that particular person aspect terminate.
Rick: Let’s focus on the terminate of what I call salt — undoubtedly dietary sodium — on blood stress. We bear talked earlier than about the truth that dietary sodium solutions are undoubtedly peaceful extremely debated, in particular among participants which could presumably well be already taking a blood stress medication. Is there any income to inserting any individual on a low-salt or low-sodium weight-reduction plan?
This used to be a extremely properly-done scrutinize in 213 participants between the ages of fifty and 75. A fourth of them had in vogue blood stress, about 20% had controlled excessive blood stress, about 30% had uncontrolled hypertension, and about 25% had untreated hypertension.
They randomized them to rob a excessive-sodium weight-reduction plan for per week — that’s 2,200 mg [added daily]; i.e., about one teaspoon of salt — or low-sodium, the set it used to be 500 mg, about one-fourth of a teaspoon. The the same participants, some obtained low-sodium, then excessive; and some obtained excessive-sodium, then low-sodium weight-reduction plan. They apt looked at what the adjustments in blood stress had been all the map in which by map of that timeframe.
The variation between the excessive-sodium and low-sodium weight-reduction plan used to be about 8 mm Hg systolic. That is outstanding. Genuinely, that’s as worthy or bigger than what you earn with inserting any individual on our first-line antihypertensive agents. This community of participants shows that, undoubtedly, dietary sodium prick price drastically lowers blood stress in the majority — that used to be in three-fourths — of heart to elderly adults.
Elizabeth: I feel that is a genuinely outstanding scrutinize in JAMA in light of the total a mammoth sequence of cases that we bear talked about dietary sodium and its affect on blood stress because we bear seen outcomes which bear been roughly some distance and huge the map, and this furthermore seems admire it took space undoubtedly rapidly on this change of weight-reduction plan.
Rick: You can also very properly be apt, Elizabeth. A couple of issues. One is that this apt a 1-week weight-reduction plan, the set they took participants on a in vogue weight-reduction plan and set aside them on a excessive-salt weight-reduction plan, it didn’t swap the blood stress very worthy. That is because we already rob too worthy salt in our weight-reduction plan. Alternatively, as soon as they set aside them on the low-salt weight-reduction plan, it dramatically lowered undoubtedly in 1 week.
By the map in which, I talked about the a form of groups that had been studied. It didn’t topic whether you had been on blood stress medication or no longer, whether you had been normotensive or hypertensive, controlled or out of protect an eye fixed on — the total groups terminate up with the same income with inserting participants on a low-salt weight-reduction plan.
Elizabeth: I genuinely want to return to a pair of the questions that now we bear identified up to now and participants are that we’re accustomed to clear tastes in our foods and eliminating sodium, in particular in ready foods, has continuously been roughly a valid downside. How are we going to address that?
Rick: First of all, we mustn’t be adding salt. Secondly, we ought to be taking a look on the salt intake of the foods that we’re eating. Foods which could presumably well be no longer ready at home, foods which could presumably well be ultra-processed, oftentimes bear a excessive-salt intake. Now, most meals merchandise show cover how worthy sodium is in them, even processed or already ready foods.
Elizabeth: I’m wondering about regulatory bodies that also can rob this on as no longer lower than an advocacy space that sodium come what may possibly has to be lowered in ready foods.
Rick: I’d no longer disagree with you. I feel or no longer it ought to be a worldly promote to carry out that. We bear got participants which could presumably well be making an strive to earn the govt. to address fewer issues, but no longer lower than gleaming it is doubtless you’ll read on a trace to figure out whether that is excessive salt or no longer is undoubtedly extremely crucial. But as you talked about, that is a moderately short scrutinize — in 1 week there used to be dramatic adjustments. It would not address the say of if we sustained this over a actually long timeframe are those blood stress adjustments peaceful sustained.
Elizabeth: Let’s flip to The BMJ. This is a look on the live herpes zoster vaccine in 10 years following vaccination. This, pointless to claim, is a extremely crucial say because recrudescence of herpes zoster undoubtedly finally ends up in shingles. Shingles is a astronomical public health difficulty, in particular in participants which could presumably well be immunocompromised and in participants as they age.
This is a Kaiser Permanente Northern California scrutinize. It seems at bigger than 1.5 million participants that had been age 50 years and older, and they had been followed for a composite of nearly 9.4 million person-years. They had been taking a study vaccine effectiveness in fighting herpes zoster postherpetic neuralgia, which is an mammoth difficulty, this persistent wretchedness after participants bear a virus. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pointless to claim, also can terminate up in blindness and frankly admission to the sanatorium for fulminant zoster infection.
Of their 1.5 million participants, 34% had been vaccinated with the live herpes zoster vaccine. They acknowledged how did your resistance to all of these issues swap over time? Vaccine effectiveness waned from 67% in the first yr to 15% after 10 years. They give the affect of being at all of these a form of issues — the postherpetic neuralgia, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, and hospitalization — all of them waned.
Across all their apply-up time, their total vaccine effectiveness used to be 46%. I feel what now we want to present is that now, right here on this nation, now we bear a recombinant vaccine so we’re no longer using the same vaccine anymore, even if someplace else on this planet they proceed to make dispute of this one.
Rick: The live zoster vaccine used to be the first vaccine against shingles, and over 50 million participants bear obtained it. In the United States, it used to be licensed in 2006. The recombinant one which you talked about used to be devised to rob a study to forestall some of this waning effects. It didn’t became accessible in the U.S. until 2017, so participants that had been vaccinated earlier than 2017 in the U.S. or someplace else no doubt obtained the live virus.
As you talked about, the outcomes wane; subsequently participants that have not obtained the recombinant ought to peaceful seriously rob into tale doing that. We all know that that is now delivered in a two-dose vaccination scheme. It be about 98% efficient in fighting shingles and in the event you stop shingles it is doubtless you’ll stop the aspect effects as properly.
Elizabeth: Indeed, because you undoubtedly have no longer desire all of the sequelae that apply recrudescence of this infection.
Rick: Yeah. As you talked about, now we bear listeners across the sector and the live vaccine is peaceful ragged in the United Kingdom and Australia.
Elizabeth: Sooner or later, let’s flip support to JAMA.
Rick: Elizabeth, I tee this up as making mechanical cardiac toughen safer. These are devices known as left ventricular support devices or LVADs and they’re placed in participants which bear heart failure. We originally ragged them as a bridge, the set you set in a left ventricular support instrument to earn them to transplant. Nicely, now these devices are undoubtedly destination. This is rarely at all times undoubtedly ready for transplant. This is undoubtedly their therapy. On tale of the grief of stroke, participants obtained set aside on aspirin and an oral anticoagulant known as Coumadin [warfarin] that causes doubtlessly bleeding aspect effects.
What’s took space now could presumably well be the instrument has became worthy better, what are identified as fully routinely levitated devices, and that decreases the grief of clotting. The query is carry out we peaceful want to bear that intensive anticoagulation?
To address that, they looked at over 600 patients with heart failure that had such a left ventricular support devices. Half of them they handled with Coumadin and aspirin, and the a form of half of they handled with apt Coumadin on my own. They followed them to seek for over the next yr what used to be the grief of both bear a bleeding or a clot shaped. Putting off the aspirin didn’t lengthen the grief of any clots forming, but it did lower the grief of bleeding by about 34%. This is huge.
Elizabeth: Speaking of safer, we bear obtained agents which could presumably well be ragged as a change of warfarin or Coumadin in all places. What are we doing peaceful using that on this particular inhabitants?
Rick: Nicely, Elizabeth, or no longer it is attention-grabbing, because even if these more moderen anticoagulants are better than Coumadin in some circumstances, in others they’re no longer. In particular when any individual has a mechanical valve set aside in, we protect them on Coumadin because there may possibly be a lower grief of having a clot develop. On this case, again, or no longer it is a mechanical instrument. We bear got huge skills with Coumadin and no skills that the more moderen anticoagulants are any safer.
Elizabeth: It sounds admire for apt now or no longer it is even handed because you earn to rob fewer pills as a change of more.
Rick: And with out rising the grief of stroke or having clots develop, but lowering the bleeding grief and that’s the reason continuously crucial when participants bear mechanical devices.
Elizabeth: On that present then, that’s a study this week’s clinical headlines from Texas Tech. I’m Elizabeth Tracey.
Rick: I’m Rick Lange. Y’all hear up and earn healthy selections.